Category: Science

Rare for Most

For my new Biology course, I must answer one of the 4 questions it provided me with. So, I decided to answer the question regarding the process of genetic inheritance. It states, “Some genetic disorders are not hereditary. Give an example of one of these.”

 Now there are quite a few genetic disorders that have nothing to do with hereditary genes, but how they are caused is very interesting to say the least. You see, one way cells reproduce (or split) is by “crossing over,” which is when your chromosomes exchange certain sections of themselves with one another by colliding. Most of the time these chromosomes will collide, receive their new piece, and leave; but there is a rare case where two will get stuck together and wind up on only one side of the splitting cell. This results in one cell having an extra chromosome, and the other lacking an extra chromosome. There are normally four chromosomes involved in every crossover, meaning at the end of this exchange there will be three in one cell, and only one in the other.

When there are three of the same chromosome in one cell, it causes the genetic disorder known as Down’s syndrome. There are many people who sadly have had this happen in their cells, but never the less, it is still very rare. Like I said there are quite a few other scenarios like this that can occur in your cells, but thankfully for most people, they are all very rare as well.


Cell Signals

Someone sneaks up behind you and shouts, “Boo!” For a few seconds your heart beats faster. You did not run or do any physical activity that would increase your heart rate. What caused your heart to beat so fast? A question with a fascinating answer! This all has to do with what is known as cell signaling. See, when cells need to communicate with each other, normally, they’ll be in close proximity and will use what’s called “local signaling.” But if there are cells in different parts of your body that need to communicate, they use a process called “long distance signaling.” Endocrine cells release a signaling chemical, or a hormone, that travels through the blood stream to where ever the signal was needed. This was originally discovered when Dr. Earl Wilbur Sutherland preformed studies on how adrenaline was transported through the body; this brings us back to our question. When someone scares you unexpectedly your body senses this as a dangerous situation, and using what we discussed earlier, sends adrenaline to the most important parts of the body; being your heart your legs ect. This would explain why your heart beats faster when your scared, or why your legs shake when you’re nervous, because this hormone provides your body with extra energy that can be use to either fight or flee the situation. Cell signaling is quite a fascinating area of science, but don’t take my word for it, do a little research of your own!

Be Prepared


  If a Search and Rescue team has to perform an extensive search in the cold snowy mountains, they need to stay warm.  So to make sure that they keep warm, the Search and Rescue teams have two ways to do this correctly.  Layering is the first.  This is probably something that almost all moms are doing.  When it’s winder they give their children a second layer.  But Search and Rescue teams put on five layers!  This is usually only done when they are in very cold climates.  The materials the layers are made of are also very important.  If cotton gets wet, all of the insulation is lost.  But if wool does, then it does the opposite.  They also have to be careful not to overheat if it’s not that cold.  Heat transfer is their second aid.  They keep the inside warm and keep air flow constant through the layers to regulate body heat. The way the SAR teams prepare is genius and proves that they’re ready for anything!

The Incident Command System

     When there is a collapsed building in an important area, there are a number of teams which are trained for large incidents such as this.  But, what about problems that aren’t as severe? That is what the ICS (Incident Command System) is for.  This system is built to be more flexible when it comes to important but less dire situations.  It is of much importance to our community, because if all of the larger Search and Rescue teams are on an important mission, and something happens, the ICS can help handle it.  This system, in order to handle all risks, is based on 5 management concepts.  It needs unity command, in order establish who’s in charge of who. Common terminology, so that imported teams who might use different terms can understand each other.  Flexible and modular organization, so that the teams operation can grow or diminish, without harming their main objective. Management by objective and span of control are the two that complete the five and go into much bigger detail.  But, in the end, these teams are of great importance to us, SAR teams and the community.

Three Search and Rescue Operations

     Search and rescue teams can be found in different varieties and each team is trained for a different field of expertise.  One of these teams is trained for avalanche rescue. This is a very important field to be educated in because other teams, such as land or air, can’t do this as well.  So these teams brave the cold and hike through the snow to get people to safety.

     Some military operations are made for search and rescue as well.  The Air Force will attempt rescue missions at high altitudes for the safety of others.  This may possibly be the most important field in search and rescue; mainly because if a plane is going down, SAR (Search and Rescue) teams on land can get to it when it crashes. However, the Air Force will give free falling passengers a chance to land sooner.

     Outdoor SAR teams are very important.  If a camper gets lost in the forest, and could be injured, he needs to be found as soon as possible.  From helicopters to tracking dogs, these men will go to great lengths to keep you safe in the wild.

     We should always honor those men and women who risk their lives for ours.